Philosophy Words and Terms Defined

Philosophy isn’t easy. Beginning with logic and continuing in more depth includes the use of a lot of new words, or different and more precise uses of words we might already know. I have compiled Philosophy Words and Terms Defined.

Philosophy Words and Terms Defined

  • Absolute defined: Something that is completely true or correct, without any exceptions.
  • Absolutism: the belief that there are absolute truths and moral principles that apply at all times and in all situations.
  • Abstract defined: A concept or idea that is not concrete or physical.
  • Acquaintance: knowing someone or something by sight or from a brief meeting.
  • Adequate: enough for a particular purpose or need.
  • Aggression: acting in a hostile or violent way.
  • Altruism: the belief in and practice of helping others without expecting anything in return.
  • Altruistic: concerned with or seeking the welfare of others.
  • Ambition: a strong desire to achieve something.
  • Anti-Subjectivism defined:
  • Argument defined: A reason or set of reasons given to support or prove something.
  • Atom defined: The smallest unit of matter that still has all the properties of an element.
  • Autonomy: the ability to make one’s own decisions and control one’s own actions.
  • Belief defined: Something that someone thinks is true, even if they don’t have proof.
  • Benevolence: an act of kindness or generosity.
  • Benevolence: the disposition to do good.
  • Benevolent: wishing well or showing kindness to others.
  • Binary opposition: the idea that two concepts or things are mutually exclusive and cannot exist together.
  • Bivalent logic: a type of logic that only allows for two truth-values, true or false
  • Capitalism defined: A humanitarian economic and moral ideology in which property ownership and means of production are individually owned.
  • Caring: feeling concern or interest for something or someone.
  • Cause defined: The reason why something happens.
  • Certainty defined: Knowing something is true without any doubt.
  • Character defined: The personality or set of qualities that makes someone who they are.
  • Character: the moral or ethical qualities of a person.
  • Choice defined: Deciding between two or more options.
  • Citizen defined: A member of a community or country.
  • Civil defined: Having to do with the laws and government of a society.
  • Civil rights defined: The rights and freedoms that all people should have, regardless of who they are.
  • Compassion: feeling concern or empathy for others.
  • Concept defined: An idea or notion.
  • Conscience: an inner sense of what is right or wrong.
  • Consciousness defined: Being aware of oneself and the world around you.
  • Consciousness: the state of being aware of and able to think and perceive.
  • Consequence defined: The result or outcome of an action or decision.
  • Consequentialism: the belief that the morality of an action should be based on its consequences.
  • Constitution defined: The set of laws and principles that govern a country or organization.
  • Contract defined: An agreement between two or more parties.
  • Contradiction: a statement that cannot be true and false at the same time
  • Courage defined: Being brave and not giving up in the face of fear or danger.
  • Courage: the ability to face fear, danger, or pain.
  • Crime defined: An act that is against the law.
  • Culture defined: The beliefs, customs, and way of life of a group of people.
  • Cynicism defined: A belief that people are only motivated by self-interest.
  • Decency: conforming to a standard of what is morally right or honorable.
    1. Democracy defined: Also called, “Mob Rule” it is type of government where those in power set up a system in which a limited number of choices are offered to the masses, and after selected one of the offered solutions, the masses are persuaded that they freely chose the result.
  • Deontology: the belief that the morality of an action should be based on a moral rule or duty.
  • Dependence defined: Being reliant on someone or something for support.
  • Determinism defined: The belief that everything that happens is caused by something else.
  • Dialectic defined: A method of critical thinking and debate.
  • Dialetheism: the belief that some statements can be both true and false
  • Dialetheism: the belief that some statements can be both true and false at the same time.
  • Difference defined: Being not the same as something else.
  • Dignity defined: The quality of being worthy of respect.
  • Duty defined: Something that someone is required to do.
  • Duty: an action that is morally or legally required.
  • Egoism: the belief that people should act in their own self-interest.
  • Either/or: the idea that a choice must be made between two options and that only one can be chosen.
  • Emotion defined: A feeling or mental state.
  • Empathy defined: Being able to understand and share the feelings of others.
  • Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.
  • Enlightenment defined: A state of understanding or knowledge.
  • Equality defined: The concept of things being the same. No two things in the world are completely the same if examined at a microscopic level. This word has become a fallacy when used in a post-modern marxist manner.
  • Equality defined: Treating everyone the same, regardless of who they are.
  • Ethical: concerning moral principles or rules of behavior, having to do with right and wrong behavior.
  • Ethics defined: The study of what is right and wrong.
  • Evidence defined: Proof or information that supports a claim.
  • Evolution defined: The process by which different species change over time.
  • Ex contradictione quodlibet: a rule in logic that states from a contradiction, any statement can be derived
  • Excluded middle: the idea that a statement must be either true or false and there is no middle ground.
  • Excluded middle: the principle that a statement must be either true or false, with no middle ground
  • Experience defined: The knowledge or understanding that comes from doing something.
  • Fairness: impartiality and honesty.
  • Fairness: treating others justly and equitably.
  • Faith defined: Believing in something without proof.
  • False dilemma: the idea that only two options exist when in fact there are more.
  • Falsum: a statement that is false
  • Fate defined: The idea that everything is predetermined.
  • Feelz defined:
  • Forgiveness: the act of pardoning an offender.
  • Freedom defined: The ability to make choices without being constrained.
  • Friendship defined: A close relationship between two or more people.
  • Generosity: the quality of being kind and giving.
  • Good defined: That which is morally right or desirable.
  • Good: something that is morally right or desirable.
  • Government defined: The organization that makes and enforces laws in a society.
  • Gracious: polite and kind.
  • Habit defined: A behavior that is repeated often and becomes automatic.
  • Happiness defined: A state of being content or satisfied.
  • Harmony defined: A state of balance or agreement.
  • Heaven defined: A mythical place that is believed to be the home of the Judæo Christian God.
  • Hell defined: A place that is believed to be the home of punishment after death.
  • Honesty: truthful and fair.
  • Human nature defined: The innate characteristics that make people who they are.
  • Identity defined: The qualities that make a person who they are.
  • Illusion defined: Something that appears to be true, but is not real.
  • Imagination defined: The ability to create mental images or ideas.
  • Immortality defined: Living forever.
  • Independence defined: Being able to do things on your own.
  • Individual defined: A single person or thing.
  • Injustice defined: Treating someone unfairly.
  • Insight defined: A deep understanding or realization.
  • Integrity defined: Being honest and having strong moral principles.
  • Integrity: being honest and having strong moral principles.
  • Intelligence defined: The ability to learn, understand, and think critically.
  • Intention defined: A plan or purpose.
  • Intuitionistic logic: a type of logic that emphasizes the constructivist approach to the principles of reasoning, it allows for the concept of propositions being neither true nor false but undetermined.
  • Justice defined: Treating everyone fairly and according to the law.
  • Justice: treating everyone fairly and according to the law.
  • Kantianism: a moral philosophy developed by Immanuel Kant, which holds that the morality of an action should be based on the principle of universality.
  • Knowledge defined: Understanding or information about something.
  • Law defined:
  • Law of identity: the principle that something is the same as itself
  • Law of non-contradiction: the idea that something cannot be both true and false at the same time.
  • Law of non-contradiction: the principle that something cannot be both true and false at the same time
  • Logic defined: The study of reasoning and thinking.
  • Logic: the study of reasoning and thinking in a clear and consistent manner.
  • Logical absoluteness: the belief that some logical principles are universally and necessarily true
  • Logical constructivism: the belief that some concepts or knowledge can only be formed by a process of constructive reasoning
  • Logical positivism: a philosophy that holds that only statements that can be verified through empirical observation or logical proofs are meaningful
  • Love defined: A strong feeling of affection towards someone.
  • Meaning defined: The purpose or significance of something.
  • Meditation defined: A practice of focusing the mind for a period of time.
  • Metaphysics defined: The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of reality.
  • Middle ground: a compromise or position that falls between two extremes.
  • Mind defined: The part of the body that is responsible for thinking, feeling, and perception.
  • Modal logic: a type of logic that deals with the concept of possibility and necessity
  • Morality defined: The principles of what is right and wrong.
  • Morality: the principles of what is right and wrong.
  • Motive defined: The reason behind an action or decision.
  • Nature defined: The physical world and all living things in it.
  • Necessity defined: Something that is required or absolutely necessary.
  • Negation: the opposite or denial of a statement or proposition
  • Norms: rules or expectations for behavior within a society.
  • Objective defined: A goal or aim.
  • Observation defined: The act of watching or noticing something.
  • Opinion defined: A belief or viewpoint about something.
  • Order defined: A state of organization or arrangement.
  • Ownership defined:
  • Paraconsistent Logic: a type of logic that allows for the coexistence of contradictory statements, and it is used in some areas of mathematics and philosophy.
  • Paradigm defined: A model or framework for understanding something.
  • Paradox: a statement that contradicts itself
  • Perception defined: The way we interpret and understand the world around us.
  • Perfection defined: The state of being without flaws or errors.
  • Perspective defined: The way someone sees or understands something.
  • Philosophy defined: The study of knowledge, reality, and existence.
  • Physics defined: The branch of science that deals with the nature of matter and energy.
  • Politics defined: The study of how societies are governed.
  • Potential defined: The possibility of something happening or being achieved.
  • Power defined: The ability to control or influence others.
  • Practice defined: Repeatedly doing something to improve or become skilled at it.
  • Pragmatism defined: The belief that the usefulness or practicality of an idea is more important than its theoretical correctness.
  • Prejudice defined: Having an unfair bias against someone or something.
  • Principle defined: A fundamental belief or rule that guides behavior.
  • Principle of bivalence: the belief that all statements must be either true or false
  • Principle of bivalence: the idea that all statements must be either true or false.
  • Principle of excluded middle: the belief that for any statement, it must be either true or false
  • Principle: a fundamental belief or rule that guides behavior.
  • Progress defined: Improvement or advancement.
  • Property defined: Something that belongs to someone.
  • Proportion defined: The relationship of one part to another or to the whole.
  • Propositions: statements that can be either true or false.
  • Proven defined: Confirmed or shown to be true.
  • Purpose defined: The reason or intention behind something.
  • Rational defined: able to think and make decisions using reason.
  • Reality defined: The state of things as they actually exist.
  • Reason defined: The ability to think and make logical conclusions.
  • Reasoning: the process of thinking through and making logical conclusions.
  • Redemption defined: The act of making up for a wrong or mistake.
  • Reductionism: the belief that complex things can be explained by breaking them down into simpler parts.
    1. REELS defined: A system of thinking and argument based on a the acronym for Reason, Empirical Evidence, Logic, Scientific method.
  • Reflect defined: To think about something carefully.
  • Reform defined: Improving or changing something.
  • Relationship defined: The connection or association between two or more things.
  • Relativism defined: the belief that truth and morality are relative to the individual or culture.
  • Religion defined: A belief in a higher power or set of spiritual practices.
  • Representation defined: the act of standing in for or speaking on behalf of something or someone else.
  • Responsibility defined: Being accountable for one’s actions and decisions.
  • Right: something that is morally correct or just.
  • Rights defined: things that do not actually exist, but were once thought to be justly or morally due to a person or group.
  • Scepticism defined: the attitude of doubt or questioning of accepted beliefs.
  • Self defined: the sense of one’s own identity.
  • Self-interest defined: the belief that people act in their own best interest.
  • Self-interest: the belief that people act in their own best interest.
  • Self-knowledge defined: the understanding of one’s own thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.
  • Skepticism defined: the attitude of doubt or questioning of accepted beliefs.
  • Social contract defined: an agreement among members of a society to give up some individual freedom in exchange for protection and security provided by the government.
  • Soul defined: the non-physical part of a person that is believed to exist after death.
  • Space defined: the area or distance around, between, and within objects.
  • Spirit defined: the non-physical part of a person that is believed to exist after death.
  • State defined: the organization that makes and enforces laws in a society.
  • Subjectivity defined: the belief that knowledge and truth are based on individual perception.
  • Substance defined: the basic material or essence of something.
  • Symbol defined: something that represents or stands for something else.
  • Sympathy defined: the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.
  • System defined: a group of things working together as a whole.
  • Taste defined: the sense of what is pleasurable or enjoyable.
  • Tautology: a statement that is always true by definition.
  • Tautology: a statement that is always true by definition.
  • Taxation defined: A form of extortion that governments codify as being legal and an exception to the moral rule of not initiating violence against another person’s property.
  • Teleology defined: the belief that everything has a purpose or goal.
    1. Theology defined: the study of the nature of gods and religions.
  • Three-valued logic: a type of logic that allows for more than two truth-values such as true, false, and undefined.
  • Time defined: the progression of events and the duration of those events.
  • Trivalent Logic: a type of logic that allows for more than two truth-values.
  • Trivialism: the belief that all statements are true or that there is no distinction between truth and falsehood
  • Truth defined: the state of being in agreement with fact or reality.
  • Truth-value: the property of a statement being either true or false.
  • Truth: the state of being in agreement with fact or reality.
  • Unity defined: the state of being united or joined together.
  • Universe defined: all of space and time and everything in it.
  • Utilitarianism: the belief that the morality of an action should be based on its overall usefulness or benefit to society.
  • Utility defined: the usefulness or practicality of something.
  • Validity: the logical soundness of an argument or conclusion.
  • Value defined: the worth or usefulness of something.
  • Value: the worth or usefulness of something.
    1. Values defined: Things subjectively chosen by individuals that each person finds to be of little or much worth and quality.
  • Verification: the process of determining the truth or validity of a statement.
  • Verificationism: the belief that the meaning of a statement is determined by the method of its verification or proof.
  • Virtue defined: the quality of being morally good or right.
  • Virtue: the quality of being morally good or right.
  • Will defined: the ability to make decisions and control one’s actions.
  • Wisdom defined: the ability to make good decisions and understand the world around you.
  • Wonder defined: the feeling of being amazed or curious about something.
  • World defined: the entirety of everything that exists.
  • Worship defined: the act of showing reverence or devotion to a higher power.
  • Wrong: something that is morally incorrect or unjust.
  • Xenophobia defined: the fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners.
  • Yearning defined: a strong desire or longing for something.
  • Yoga defined: a practice of physical and mental exercises to achieve spiritual balance and inner peace.
  • Zen defined: a school of Buddhism that emphasizes meditation and the attainment of spiritual understanding.
  • Zero defined: the absence of any quantity or value.